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سلجوقي

Damascus – Damascus Citadel
دمشق – قلعة دمشق

Located in the northwest corner of the old city, the Damascus Citadel (قلعة دمشق) was first fortified under Turkmen warlord Aziz Bin Awaq al-Khawarzami (ازيز بن أوق الخوارزمي) in 1076. It was not completed during his reign, but under subsequent ruler Abu Said Taj al-Dawleh Tatash al-Seljuqi (أبو سعيد تاج الدولة تتش السلجوقي‎). The citadel was expanded and modified several times in the following centuries, …

Damascus – al-Madrasa al-Aadiliyeh
دمشق – المدرسة العادلية

al-Madrasa al-Aadiliyeh (المدرسة العادلية) is an Ayyubid-era religious school named after al-Aadil Seif al-Din Abu Bakr Bin Ayoub (العادل سيف الدين أبو بكر بن أيوب‎), a prominent figure throughout the early Ayyubid period and a younger brother of Salah al-Din Yousef Bin Ayoub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب). Construction of the religious school began during the late Seljuq period (1172-1173), but it was not completed …

Damascus – al-Bimaristan al-Nuri
دمشق – البيمارستان النوري

al-Bimaristan al-Nuri (البيمارستان النوري) was originally a hospital and medical teaching center, established by Nur al-Din Mahmoud Zenki (نور الدين محمود زنكي) in 1154. The building served this role until the construction of the National Hospital in the 19th century. Today, it houses an interesting museum dedicated to the history of Arab science and medicine. The building is remarkable for its architecture, with an elaborately …

Damascus – Gates & Towers
دمشق – البوابات و الابراج

The old city of Damascus (دمشق) was once surrounded by extensive fortifications that included walls, towers, and gates in addition to the more imposing Damascus Citadel (قلعة دمشق). Much of these defenses survive intact, often concealed within markets and incorporated into residential buildings. While the city’s fortifications were originally constructed during the Roman period, what remains today largely dates to Seljuq and Ayyubid era reconstructions. …

Damascus – Nur al-Din al-Shahid Mosque
دمشق – جامع نور الدين الشهيد

Hidden away in the markets of the old city of Damascus (دمشق) is Nur al-Din al-Shahid Mosque (جامع نور الدين الشهيد), the final resting place of Nur al-Din Mahmoud Zenki (نور الدين محمود زنكي). His father, Amad al-Din Zenki (عماد الدین زنكي‎), ruled over the regions of Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ‎), Hama (حماة‎), Mosul (الموصل), and Edessa (modern Şanlıurfa in Turkey) as part of the Seljuq Empire …

Aleppo – Great Mosque
حلب – جامع الكبير‎

The Great Mosque of Aleppo (جامع حلب الكبير‎) is the largest and most well-known religious monument in the old city of Aleppo (حلب). Construction of the original mosque at this site began under al-Walid Bin Abd al-Malik (الوليد بن عبد الملك‎), the Umayyad caliph from 705 until his death in 715. The building was completed during the reign of his successor and brother, Suleiman Bin …

Aleppo – al-Shayabiyeh Mosque
حلب – جامع الشعيبية

The origin of al-Shayabiyeh Mosque (جامع الشعيبية) is not entirely clear, but the present structure largely dates to 1150 during the rule of Nur al-Din Mahmoud Zenki (نور الدين محمود زنكي). The most interesting feature of this small mosque is the elaborate stone carved decoration over the western façade. Much of this stonework was previously assumed to have originated from an early Roman triumphal arch …

Hama – Great Mosque
حماة – جامع الكبير‎

Great Mosque of Hama (جامع حماة الكبير‎) is the most impressive religious site in the city, despite being almost entirely reconstructed after the 1982 conflict. Dating back to the 7th century, the mosque was converted from a Byzantine church under Abu Aabideh Bin al-Jarah (أبو عبيدة بن الجراح) during the Umayyad period. That 6th century church was converted from an even earlier Roman temple, originally …

Hama – al-Nuri Mosque
حماة – جامع النوري

al-Nuri Mosque (جامع النوري) was constructed in 1163 during the reign of Nur al-Din Mahmoud Zenki (نور الدين محمود زنكي). Acknowledging the important role that Hama (حماة) played in establishing his rule over both Aleppo (حلب) and Damascus (دمشق), Nur al-Din (نور الدين) endowed the city this mosque. He also had several monuments damaged in a 1157 earthquake rebuilt. The mosque was expanded during the …

Hama – Mosques
حماة – الجوامع

The city of Hama (حماة) has several historic mosques worth visiting in addition to the famed Great Mosque of Hama (جامع حماة الكبير‎) and the al-Nuri Mosque (جامع النوري), both covered separately. Numerous other mosques can be found surrounding the remains of the former citadel. Most of these buildings were constructed during the late Seljuq and early Mamluk periods on a relatively modest scale. The …